Ratios and statistics

2018 2017 
Restated*
2016 
Restated*
2015 2014
SHARE PERFORMANCE
Number of ordinary shares (net of treasury shares) millions 192.5 192.5 192.5 173.1 172.8
Headline earnings per share cents 965.7 952.8 1 020.0 835.5 781.8
Normalised headline earnings per share cents 1 063.2 976.0 1 033.0 940.0 779.8
Dividends per share cents 729.0 675.0 665.0 632.0 540.0
Dividend cover multiple 1.32 1.41 1.53 1.45 1.45
Net asset value per share cents 3 692.2 3 407.0 3 131.7 1 922.6 1 751.1
 
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME INFORMATION
Gross margin % 10.7 10.7 9.3 8.7 8.3
Operating profit margin % 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.4
Headline earnings Rmillion 1 859.6 1 834.7 1 832.9 1 446.3 1 351.3
 
SOLVENCY AND LIQUIDITY
Return on equity % 26.7 29.9 40.5 44.7 43.4
Return on net assets % 39.1 39.3 45.8 68.9 61.7
 
EMPLOYEE STATISTICS
Number of corporate office and distribution centre employees at year-end 7 204 6 786 6 387 4 724 4 025
 
STOCK EXCHANGE STATISTICS
Market price per share
– at year-end cents 18 413 16 708 19 222 18 500 12 558
– highest cents 22 700 20 499 21 971 20 617 13 632
– lowest cents 16 553 15 018 16 161 12 142 11 089
Number of share transactions 559 330 542 335 499 716 399 399 228 064
Number of shares traded millions 145.5 203.8 178.2 132.7 104.5
Number of shares traded as a percentage of total issued shares % 75.5 105.8 92.6 76.7 60.4
Value of shares traded Rmillion 28 198.2 35 789.6 34 793.2 23 190.3 12 998.2
Earnings yield at year-end % 5.8 5.8 5.4 5.1 6.2
Dividend yield at year-end % 4.0 4.0 3.5 3.4 4.3
Price earnings ratio at year-end multiple 17.3 17.1 18.6 19.7 16.1
Market capitalisation at year-end net of treasury shares Rmillion 35 454 32 164 37 004 32 027 21 708
Market capitalisation to shareholders’ equity at year-end multiple 5.0 4.9 6.6 9.6 7.2